India is a country that is well-known for its striking feature of hosting innumerable cultures, customs, traditions, and religions and, yet having a harmonious construct. The National symbols are unique insignias or marks that are accorded to significant specialities of national importance. These symbols mirror the very unique attribute of Unity in Diversity and the rich cultural heritage of India. In essence, the national symbols enable the labellingeling of the very idea of India in multiple ways. Every Indian should sense a sense of dignity while recalling these authorized symbols.
The list of all the National Symbols of India along with their lucid description and importance is as follows-
17 National Symbols of India
The following is a list of India’s national symbols as follows-
Description and Importance
||Jana-gana-mana||‘Jana-Gana-mana’ I.e. ‘Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People’ written by India’s first Nobel laureate, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore is taken up as the National Anthem of India. It was initially crafted in the Bengali language as Bharat Bhagyo Bidhata. The 52-second-long national anthem reflecting the integrity of India was officially adopted on 24th January 1950.|
|2. National Song||Vande Mataram||Vande Mataram (‘I praise you, motherland’) was conceived by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee as a poem in his novel, Anandmath. The Constituent Assembly on the 24th of January in 1950 adopted the first two verses of the same as the National Song of India. The song intensely roused the nationalist fervour among the people of the country during the struggle for independence from British Raj.|
|3. National Flower||Lotus||Lotus is designated as the national flower of our country due to the cultural significance it holds. It has the unique ability to grow in muddy waters. Recently it was adopted as a part of the logo of the G20 meeting that is presided over by India. The lotus was chosen as it exhibits growth amongst challenges.|
|4. National Flag||Tricolour (Tiranga)||The combination of three colours is put together in a horizontal arrangement to form the Indian national flag. The saffron colour or cesarian at the top signifies strength and courage. The white colour in the middle stands for peace and truth and there’s an Ashoka Chakra (24-spoke) that is placed in the centre of the same. The green colour bar at the bottom indicates the fertility of the land. The ratio of width to length is 2:3.|
|5. National Bird||Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus)||In the year 1963, Peacock was chosen as the national bird of India. Peacock is an animal with beautiful and abundant varieties of colours and is deeply connected with Indian culture. Peacock known as ‘Mayura’ in Sanskrit is revered in the Hindu religion. For illustration, Shri Krishna was spotted with a mayura pankha(feather) in his hand.|
|6. National Fruit||Mango (Mangifera indica)||The mango is prominently called the king of fruits and is the Indian national fruit as well. India is the topmost producer of mangoes in the globe and also has some prominent indigenous varieties of mangoes such as Alphonso, chains etc.|
|7. National River||Ganga||River Ganga originates from the Gaumukh glacier and the river basin consists of 11 States making it the longest river in India. It holds immense cultural, religious and geographical importance in India. The river is worshipped in Hindu tradition as the goddess and is a lifeline to millions of people.|
|8. National Tree||Indian banyan (Ficus bengalensis)||The Banyan tree is renowned for its ability to cover a large area of land by expanding its roots and branches. It also carries considerable importance in Indian folk fare and is popular as the ‘immortal tree’. India also has a distinct record of having the oldest banyan tree in its territory.|
|9. National Animal||Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigristigris)||The big-built species with stripes on its body, the Royal Bengal Tiger was picked as the national animal because of its solidity and authority.
The tiger population was confronting an increased threat of existence and hence special efforts were ensured with the launch of Project Tiger in 1973.
|10. National Aquatic Animal||Gangetic dolphin (Platanista gangetica)||The freshwater South Asian dolphin is found primarily in and around the Ganges River basin and is listed as endangered. The dolphin is essentially blind and makes a certain sound to hunt its prey.|
|11. National Currency||Indian Rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR)||The rupee symbol was designed by Shri D Uday Kumar and was chosen as the official symbol for the Indian rupee currency In 2010. It has a mix of Devangri and Roman letters and also, embodies the national flag (consider the two horizontal lines).|
|12. National Calendar||Saka calendar||It is utilized along with the Gregorian calendar for the official work of the government of India. The calendar has Chaitra month in the beginning and a usual year comprises 365 days.|
|13. State Emblem||Adapted from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka||It is inspired by the Sarnath lion capital of Ashoka. It comprises four lions of which three are visible from the front. There is a bull on the right and horse on the left and a wheel in the middle of the abacus. It was officially adopted on the 26th of January 1950.|
|14. National Heritage Animal of India||Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)||The Indian elephant is accorded this status to better the protection measures to conserve its population. Elephants are called ecological engineers and are keystone species in an ecosystem.|
|15. National Pledge||Oath of Allegiance||It is spelt by countrymen on special days such as independence day and Republic Day and is also uttered by children in school. It was first penned by prominent writer PV Subba Rao in Telugu.|
|16. National Reptile||King Cobra||It is the longest and one of the most venomous snakes in the whole world. It has deep religious significance in India as it is spotted on the neck of Lord Shiva. The King Cobra has an approximate life of 25 years.|
|17. National Motto||Satyamev Jayate (Truth alone triumphs)||It is engraved below the state emblem of India and signifies the importance of truth. The motto is derived from the Mundaka Upanishad. It was given the status of national motto on the day India celebrated its first Republic Day.|
It is our prime responsibility as citizens of India to respect and preserve the national symbols of India.
It needs to be clarified that there is no official National Sport in India (Source- Ministry of Youth Affairs).
Q. 1 What is the National Fruit of India?
Answer: Mango is the National Fruit of India.
Q. 2 What is the length of the National River?
Answer: The Ganga River is India’s national river. The river’s length is 2510. Additionally, it runs through the mountains as well.
Q. 3 When was the national emblem of India adopted?
Answer: Madhav Sawhney adopted the Indian national flag on January 26, 1950.