Neighbouring Countries of India

India, situated in the Southern part of Asia, holds the distinction of being the second-largest country in South-East Asia. Positioned in both the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres of the world, it ranks as the seventh-largest country globally in terms of land area and the second-largest in population.

India boasts an expansive geographical territory, with a vast land border spanning approximately 15,106.7 km and an extensive coastline stretching about 7,516.6 km. This provides the country with diverse natural features and resources.

Neighboring Countries of India

India shares its borders with seven countries, each offering unique cultural and geopolitical dynamics. These neighboring nations are Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Such geographic proximity has played a significant role in shaping India’s historical and contemporary relations with these countries.

Country Capital The Indian State/UTs which share Border Flag
Afghanistan Kabul Ladakh (PoK)
Bangladesh Dhaka West Bengal, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura and Assam
Bhutan Thimphu West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh & Assam
China Beijing Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh
Myanmar (Burma) Naypyidaw Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur
Nepal Kathmandu Bihar, Uttarakhand, UP, Sikkim and West Bengal
Pakistan Islamabad Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat
Sri Lanka Colombo It is separated from India by the Gulf of Mannar
Maldives Male It lies in the south-west part of the Indian Ocean below Lakshadweep Island. 

Key information about Neighbouring countries of India

  • Afghanistan:
      • Border Length: 106 km
      • Official Languages: Dari, Pashto
      • Currency: Afghan Afghani
      • States/Provinces: 34 Provinces
      • Area: 6,52,230 sq km
      • Economy: Agriculture-dependent, manufacturing of textiles, carpets, and handicrafts
      • Religion: Islam
  • Bangladesh:
      • Border Length: 4096.7 km
      • Official Language: Bengali
      • Currency: Bangladeshi Taka
      • States/Provinces: 8 Provinces
      • Area: 1,43,998 sq km
      • Coastline: 580 km
      • States Sharing Border: Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rangpur, Sylhet
      • Economy: Agriculture and other industries
  • Bhutan:
      • Border Length: 699 km
      • Official Language: Dzongkha
      • Currency: Bhutanese Ngultrum
      • States/Provinces: 20 States
      • Area: 38,394 sq km
      • Religion: Buddhism, followed by Hinduism
      • Economy: Hydropower, agriculture, forestry, and tourism
  • China:
      • Border Length: 3488 km
      • Official Language: Mandarin
      • Currency: Chinese Yuan
      • States/Provinces: 26 Provinces
      • Area: 95,96,960 sq km
      • Economy: One of the world’s fastest-growing economies
      • Relations with India: Cordial with some disputes
  • Myanmar:
      • Border Length: 1643 km
      • Official Language: Burmese
      • Currency: Burmese Kyat
      • Area: 6,76,578 sq km
      • Government: Presidential republic with bicameral legislature
      • India’s Position: Fourth-largest export market
  • Nepal:
      • Border Length: 1751 km
      • Official Language: Nepali
      • Currency: Nepalese Rupee
      • States/Provinces: 7 Provinces
      • Area: 1,47,181 sq km
      • Notable Feature: Home to Mount Everest and many tallest peaks
      • Economy: Tourism-driven, federal parliamentary republic
  • Pakistan:
      • Border Length: 3323 km
      • Official Language: Urdu
      • Currency: Pakistani Rupee
      • States/Provinces: 4 Provinces
      • Area: 7,96,095 sq km
      • Government: Led by the Prime Minister
      • Historical Background: Separated from India to form a new country
  • Sri Lanka:
      • Border Line: Sea Border
      • Official Languages: Sinhala, Tamil
      • Currency: Sri Lankan Rupee
      • States/Provinces: 9 States
      • Area: 65,610 sq km
      • Significance: Shares coastline with India, rich in diverse ethnic and religious cultures
  • Maldives:
    • Border Line: Sea Border
    • Official Language: Dhivehi
    • Currency: Maldivian Rufiyaa
    • States/Provinces: 1 Only
    • Area: 298 sq km
    • Geographic Traits: Island nation, over a thousand coral islands
    • Religion: Predominantly Islam

Important Facts about India’s Neighboring Countries

  • India and China:
      • Historical Connections: India and China have a long history of cultural and trade connections dating back to ancient times.
      • Panchsheel Pact: The signing of the Panchsheel Pact was a significant milestone in bilateral relations, promoting principles of peaceful coexistence.
      • Border Dispute: In 1962, a border dispute led to a war between the two nations, impacting relations.
      • Efforts for Improvement: Over time, efforts have been made to improve relations and foster cooperation between India and China.
  • India and Pakistan:
      • Common Heritage: India and Pakistan were once part of a unified country with shared heritage and culture.
      • Strained Relations: Major conflicts, including the Kargil conflict, have strained relations between the two nations.
      • Ongoing Efforts: Despite challenges, efforts are underway to foster a friendly relationship and promote dialogue between India and Pakistan.
  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC):
      • Objectives: SAARC was established to promote peace, stability, and economic progress in the region through mutual cooperation among South Asian countries.
      • India’s Role: India plays a pivotal role in the SAARC framework, supporting regional initiatives and cooperation.
  • India and Bangladesh:
      • Support for Independence: India played a crucial role in supporting Bangladesh during its struggle for independence from Pakistani rule in 1971.
      • Strong Ties: This support laid the foundation for strong political, economic, and cultural ties between India and Bangladesh.
  • India and Sri Lanka:
    • Ancient Connections: India and Sri Lanka share deep-rooted connections based on ancient history, mythology, and cultural ties.
    • Challenges and Relations: While challenges related to the Indian-origin population in Sri Lanka have arisen, overall political and trade relations between the two nations have remained positive.

What is India’s Neighbourhood First Policy?

Neighbourhood First Policy is a foreign policy of India related to its neighbors. A few of the features are mentioned below:

  1. Objective: The policy aims to develop friendly and mutually beneficial relations with all neighboring countries.
  2. Development Partner: India actively engages as a development partner, participating in various projects within these countries.
  3. Focus: The policy emphasizes creating people-oriented, regional frameworks to promote stability and prosperity.
  4. Approach: India’s engagement is consultative, non-reciprocal, and outcome-oriented, seeking to deliver significant benefits.
  5. Benefits: The policy focuses on delivering benefits like: a. Greater Connectivity: Enhancing connectivity within the region for improved economic and social ties. b. Improved Infrastructure: Supporting infrastructure development projects in neighboring countries. c. Development Cooperation: Strengthening cooperation in various sectors to boost overall development. d. Security: Collaborating on security issues to ensure stability and peace in the region. e. People-to-People Contacts: Encouraging greater interaction and cultural exchanges between people.

Frequently Asked Question – Neighbouring Countries of India: 

Q1. How many neighboring countries does India have?

  • Ans. India shares its borders with a total of 9 countries.
  • Breakdown: 2 countries connected by sea and 7 countries connected by land.

Q2. What are the names of India’s neighboring countries?

  • Ans. The nine neighboring countries of India are: a. Afghanistan b. Bangladesh c. Bhutan d. China e. Maldives f. Myanmar g. Nepal h. Pakistan i. Sri Lanka.

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