History Optional Course For UPSC

History and optional subject for UPSC

History is just not a subject, it is simply an experience for the candidates of the UPSC examination. History is the study of the economic, political, cultural, and social evolution of mankind within time and space. while studying history the candidate gets the formation and evolution of the following things including:- 

  • Political

Under this nature and evolution of state ideology of state and judicial character military and statecraft, politico-administrative systems, and many more are included

  • Map work and spatula geography form the basis of history. the ocean of knowledge that touches every aspect of human life.
  • Social

This includes organization, institution code of conduct, nature, and others.

  • Economic

This covers the pattern of distribution, economic administration mode of production, and many other topics.

  • Cultural

Under this, the candidate studies science and technology, religion and ideology, art, and the architectural life of a human.

If we considered general studies it includes:- 

  • Paper 1:- history, geography, society
  • Paper 2:- administration and international relation, polity.
  • Paper 3:- economy, science, and technology.
  • Paper 4:- psychology and philosophy.

If we look at every aspect of general studies we can say that history is some way or the other covered under this history is helpful for a candidate to understand and analyze the contemporary developments that are happening around us. History is helpful in connecting the past to the present. The opinions formed are not real but have a historical basis therefore history is a subject that is described as the mother of all the social sciences.

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How to prepare for history optional for UPSC examination?

History is a popular choice of the optional subject among the candidates who are preparing for the UPSC examination because history is important in the general studies papers of both preliminary and main examinations. History is not only a scoring paper but it also helps in the interview session for the candidates who have a good learning power and they can remember state it or history can definitely choose this as an optional paper since history is a static subject the candidate does not have to worry about studying the current affairs of history paper. Moreover, there is a lot of resource material available in the form of books for the preparation of history. History is a huge subject and this can be the only disadvantage of choosing this paper as an optional subject. Other than this, if you are good at remembering things and can learn about different states then you can definitely choose this paper.

Syllabus of UPSC history optional

Paper 1


Sources Archeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
Pre-history and Proto-history Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
Indus Valley Civilization Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art, and architecture.
Megalithic Cultures Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry
Aryans and Vedic Period Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic  period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system
Period of Mahajanapadas Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centers; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact
Mauryan Empire Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya, and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture, and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature; the disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas
Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) Contact with the outside world; growth of urban centers, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature, and science
Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan, and South India Kharavela, The Satavahanas, the Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds, and urban centers; Buddhist centers; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture
Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centers, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art, and architecture
The regional States during the Gupta Era The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity, and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society
Themes in Early Indian Cultural History Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools,  ideas in Science and Mathematics
Early Medieval India, 750-1200 Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs; The Cholas: administration, village economy, and society; “Indian Feudalism”; Agrarian economy and urban settlements; Trade and commerce; Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order; Condition of women; Indian science and technology
Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200 Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa; Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism; Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India; Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
The Thirteenth Century Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghorian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success; Economic, social and cultural consequences; Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans; Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
The Fourteenth Century “The Khalji Revolution”; Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures; Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, the bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq; Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, the decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account
Society, Culture, and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement; Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, the evolution of a composite culture; Economy: Agricultural production, the rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade, and commerce
The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century Political Developments and Economy: Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids; The Vijayanagara Empire; Lodis; Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and  Humayun; The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration; Portuguese Colonial enterprise; Bhakti and Sufi Movements
The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture Regional cultural specificities; Literary traditions; Provincial architecture; Society, culture, literature, and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
Akbar Conquests and consolidation of the Empire; Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems; Rajput policy; Evolution of religious and social outlook, the theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy; Court patronage of art and technology
Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb; The Empire and the Zamindars; Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb; Nature of the Mughal State; Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts; The Ahom Kingdom; Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom
Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Population, agricultural production, craft production; Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies: a trade revolution; Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance, and credit systems; Condition of peasants, condition of women; Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
Culture in the Mughal Empire Persian histories and other literature; Hindi and other religious literature; Mughal architecture; Mughal painting; Provincial architecture and painting; Classical music; Science and technology
The Eighteenth Century Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire; The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh; Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas; The Maratha fiscal and financial system; Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat: 1761; State of politics, culture, and economy on the eve of the British conquest


Paper 2 


European Penetration into India The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of  Plassey.
British Expansion in India Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; Punjab
Early Structure of the British Raj The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India
Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue; arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian laborers; Impoverishment of the rural society; Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.
Social and Cultural Developments The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist – Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India
Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayananda Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage, etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
Indian Response to British Rule Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899- 1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s
Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
Rise of Gandhi The character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working-class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission
Constitutional Developments in Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties
Politics of Separatism the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence
Consolidation as a Nation Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbors (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language
Caste and Ethnicity after 1947 Backward castes and tribes in postcolonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
Economic development and political change Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of science
Enlightenment and Modern ideas Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau; Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies; Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism
Origins of Modern Politics European States System; American Revolution and the Constitution; French revolution and aftermath, 1789- 1815; American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery; British Democratic Politics, 1815- 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists
Industrialization English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society; Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan; Industrialization and Globalization.
Nation-State System Rise of Nationalism in 19th century; Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy; Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world
Imperialism and Colonialism South and South-East Asia; Latin America and South Africa; Australia; Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism
Revolution and Counter-Revolution 19th Century European revolutions, The Russian Revolution of 1917- 1921, Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany; The Chinese Revolution of 1949
World Wars 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications; World War I: Causes and consequences; World War II: Causes and consequence
The World after World War II The emergence of two power blocs; Emergence of Third World and non-alignment; UNO and the global disputes
Liberation from Colonial Rule Latin America-Bolivar; Arab World-Egypt; Africa-Apartheid to Democracy; South-East Asia-Vietnam
Decolonization and Underdevelopment Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa
Unification of Europe Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community; Consolidation and Expansion of European Community; European Union.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991; Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001; End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower


Apart from academic excellence, this subject has different advantages that are considered in the UPSC examinations.

following are the advantages of history:- 

  • History is easy 
  • History is scoring. 
  • History is interesting. 
  • History is very compulsory in general studies. 
  • History is compatible with any academic background. 
  • History is a well-defined subject and has a precise syllabus that makes it a safe option for the students.
  • History is a closed-ended and static subject.

Booklist for the preparation of history optional subject

  1. NCERT for Class IX to XII
  2. From Plassey to Partition and After A History of Modern India by Sekhar Bandyopadhyay
  3. A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century by Farooqui Salma Ahmed
  4. Contemporary India: Economy, Society, Politics by Neera Chandhoke
  5. NIOS/IGNOU Notes
  6. India’s Ancient Past by R. S. Sharma.
  7. History of Medieval India: From 647 A.D. to the Mughal Conquest by Satish Chandra.
  8. History of Modern India by Bipan Chandra.
  9. India’s Struggle For Independence by Bipan Chandra.
  10. Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania.
  11. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century by Upinder Singh
  12. A History of Modern World by Jain and Mathur
  13. Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe

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